Brynja E. Halldórsdóttir, Ólafur Páll Jónsson & Berglind Rós Magnúsdóttir. Education for Democracy, Citizenship and Social Justice: The Case of Iceland – The Palgrave International Handbook of Education for Citizenship and Social Justice
Iceland has a unique history of democratic tendencies with a colonial twist. It was settled in the ninth century but became a Norwegian colony and, later, a Danish colony. It received independence in 1944 after almost 700 years of colonial rule. The countries ethnic uniformity has had both positive and negative effects on the development of social justice and democratic values. This chapter explores these changes, investigating the historical context with a view to the developing concepts of democracy. It looks at the recent increase in demographic diversity that has presented challenges to an educational system traditionally viewed as mono-lingual and mono-cultural. The chapter then discusses the development of inclusive education, which is followed by a discussion of gender in a socio-economic and educational framework.